Smart city represents the next level in the evolution of towns. Its focus is on quality of life and sustainable development. A widely accepted definition of smart city does not exist, but there is a common agreement that the smartness of a city is strongly related to the capability of solving problems of citizenship. Thus, pursuing city smartness is a strategic approch to attracting human, professional and economic resources for the development of a town.
When talking about smart cities, the focus is often on information and communication technologies (ICT). Surely modern technologies are essential enablers, but they are not the heart of a smart city.
To ensure sustainable development and efficient resource exploitation the focus must be on the human, social and intellectual assets of a community.
As a consequence, to be a smart city does not mean to reach a well specified status. It is rather it is a continuous and systematic process of social, cultural, and technological improvement in which information and knowledge are produced, shared and employed for common wellbeing and quality of life.
The IEEE is the world’s largest, volunteer based, professional organization dedicated to the advancement and the dissemination of new technologies for the benefits of humanity.
Through its about 450.000 members, more than 170 highly cited publications, conferences, technology standards, professional and educational activities, IEEE is a trustworthy voice on a wide variety of areas ranging from aerospace systems, computers and telecommunications to biomedical engineering, power systems and consumer electronics.
Further information at: www.ieee.org
The IEEE Italy Section was founded in 1959. Currently, it has more than 4.500 members, both from Academia and Industry. It consists of 33 Chapters, 2 affinity groups and 20 student branches.
Further information on: sites.ieee.org/italy
Globally launched by the IEEE Future Directions Committee, the IEEE Smart Cities Initiative is a global, multi-disciplinary cross-IEEE effort, through which IEEE intends to support 10 selected cities through strategic and practical advice, as well as education and training, from a dedicated team of experts and a forum for collaboration of all entities involved in planning successful smart cities.
Trento has been selected by the IEEE as one of the 10 core cities involved in the IEEE Smart cities Initiative. The initiative supports participating cities in addressing their strategy and improving their smartness by leveraging the experience and knowledge of world- class technology experts. The initiative ecourages cities to collaborate with one another and with world-renowned smart city technicians and scientists.
Further information at: www.comune.trento.it/Progetti/IEEE
December 10-12, 2014, Trento, Italy
Inaugural workshop of the IEEE Smart Cities Initiative in Trento.
For further details: http://webmagazine.unitn.it/evento/ateneo/2868/ieee-smart-cities-initiative-trento
January 26-30, 2015, Trento, Italy
First edition of the IEEE Italy Section School on Future Energy Systems organized by the IEEE Italy Section in collaboration with the Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Trento (Italy), and the University Associations CMAEL, GMEE and GUSEE.
For further details: http://events.unitn.it/en/ieeesfes2015
February 9-13, 2015, Trento, Italy
Second edition of the IEEE Italy Section School of Career Boosting organized by the IEEE Italy Section in cooperation with the Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Trento (Italy).
For further details: http://events.unitn.it/en/ieeescb2015
July 9-10, 2015, Trento, Italy
2015 IEEE Workshop on Environmental, Energy and Structural Monitoring Systems (EESMS) sponsored by the IEEE Italy Section, it took place at the University of Trento, Trento, Italy.
For further details: http://events.unitn.it/en/eesms2015
October 25-28, 2015, Guadalajara, Mexico
First IEEE International Smart Cities Conference (ISC2-2015), the premier annual conference sponsored by the IEEE Smart Cities Steering Committee.
For further details: http://sites.ieee.org/isc2/
February 1-5, 2016, Trento, Italy
Second edition of the IEEE Italy Section School on Future Energy Systems organized by the IEEE Italy Section in collaboration with the Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Trento (Italy), and the University Associations CMAEL, GMEE and GUSEE.
For further details: http://events.unitn.it/en/ieeesfes2016
February 15-19, 2016, Trento, Italy
Third edition of the IEEE Italy Section School of Career Boosting organized by the IEEE Italy Section in cooperation with the Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Trento (Italy).
For further details: http://events.unitn.it/en/ieeescb2016
Abstract - Since late 50s, some architects envisioned computer-managed spaces to better fit user’s needs. At that time, the technology to implement their visions was not available yet. The same concept behind those visions is the basis of the participation process that started during the 60s in the urban design process. Mostly, it just failed.
Today, urban spaces are pervaded by smart devices that have revolutionised our way to meet, communicate, work and experience the inhabited environments. Actors once fully involved in the process of decision making about urban transformation, start now to take advantage from this revolution that foster both more powerful tools and broader working teams.
This paper briefly discusses how data provided by new technologies can drive open-source approaches in designing and managing urban transformation. The change in paradigms regarding urban space design leads to solve contemporary city’s issues through “choral” processes rather than just “smart” systems.
Keywords: open-source; smart city; new technologies; data-driven; architectural device
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Abstract - In the past twenty years, we faced a radical change in computer performance: they became more and more smart, powerful and portable, spreading all over our inhabited space. As an inevitable consequence, since the early 2000s, ICT companies started to deal with the increasing amount of data produced by the internet and personal smart devices.
Nowadays data and information are strongly affecting the way we do and look at things. Even, cities have been involved in the so-called Internet of Things: today, sensors permeate cities, creating an exponential growing amount of raw data spanning different areas of the urban environment, from traffic to human behaviors. Consequently, ICT companies have started playing a crucial role in the decision-making processes related to city management.
But what are the pros and cons in this data-driven decision process? How does it affect the process of managing not just issues like traffic but the whole environment of a city? An overview from city-planning point of view is reported in this paper.
keywords: city planning, smart city, serendipity
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Biruk B. Seyoum
Abstract - Multitude of sensors have been and are being deployed to support the distributed computing that is required in smart cities. These network of sensors nodes mainly perform environmental sensing, processing of the acquired information, actuation and/or transfer of information. By design, the nodes are usually limited in their computational resources as well as in the energy they can store. Guaranteeing the longevity of these nodes thus entails finding a sustainable and long lasting source of energy, so making the node fully autonomous. Currently batteries are the most common means of powering nodes but, as batteries are inherently limited in their energy storage capability, other reliable energy sources had been explored. Energy harvesting is a viable way for the realization of such electrical energy sources. In this paper, the feasibility of powering wireless sensors network nodes distributed across a city using small size, low cost and efficient thermoelectric generators is explored.
Keywords. Smart Cities; TEG; WSN.
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Biruk B. Seyoum
Abstract - Metropolitan cities existed long before the conception of the notion of smart cities. "Smartifying" such cities brings with it specific opportunities and challenges. This paper explores the features of a smart metropolitan city and logical steps that are needed to be taken to make a metropolitan city smarter. It then assesses the “smartness” of Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, in terms of the smart public housing and smart mobility.
Keywords. Smart Cities; smart mobility; smart housing; Addis Ababa.
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Chiara Di Meo
Abstract - The work highlights the main characteristics about the evolution of the way tourists access cultural offer of available destination, the role that the new technologies play in this scenario - particularly known as “digital tourism”, ”e-tourism” and “m-tourism” – and the emerging challenges, especially at the national level. In a smart community perspective, the tourist experience is required to be sensational. As a result, information is personalized according to the tourists’ different profiles according to a “prosumer” orientation.
Keywords: e-tourism; digital culture; smart city; relational tourism; prosumer; tourism 3.0.
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Chiara Di Meo
Abstract - The work intends to investigate the pattern that Trento Smart City is following in terms of Open Data and Open Government. Among the several projects dealing with such subject, we consider OpenAgenda an ambitious project aiming at the digitization and integration of all relevant information about the cultural and events agenda spread all over the provincial soil. This specific program is to ascribe to the macro-frame of Trento Smart City, as an example of the city’s ongoing technological commitment. OpenAgenda represents an example of how the Province of Trento is betting on technological improvement and advancement by developing and boosting synergies with local partners and surrounding municipalities.
Keywords: Trento smart city, open data, open government, ICT, digital agenda, community innovation.
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Abstract - The smart evolution of a city is based on the widespread adoption of Information and Communications Technologys (ICTs). ICTs promise, in fact, to boost innovation into many domains. New mobility paradigms, social networks, educational platforms and monitoring tools for the safety of citizens could be all enhanced exploiting ICTs. These applications run on top of a mix of mobile and fixed networks maintained by Internet Service Providers (ISPs). This networking paradigm hides threats to the social and economical sustainability of the network. For instance, ISPs can manipulate users’ data, since they have full control of the traffic in the network. Moreover, an urban network is tailored to be economically and socially more sustainable. In this context UrbanWireless Community Networks (UWCNs) should be favoured, as they represent a sustainable networking paradigm, ideal for the creation of innovative services for a new generation of smart-cities. The main purpose of this paper is to present the Urban Wireless Community Networks, with a brief analysis of the underpinning technologies and highlighting their prospective social impact. To this end, a review of potential applications is provided, concluding with an outline of the openchallenges that still needs to be addressed in order to foster the growth of a Community Network in the city of Trento.
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Abstract - In the recent years, the healthcare system is undergoing a profound change shifting from a reactive care, in which
people are treated when necessary, to proactive care, based on people’s involvement in their own health on a daily basis, by means of continuous monitoring and prevention. The continuous assessment of people’s health status results in many innovative hardware and software solutions entering the healthcare market. Among the last category, a field of great interest for the research community recently is the analysis of physiological signals within the paradigm of information theory. Physiological systems can be indeed considered as communication systems in which processing, storage and transfer of information can be analysed and studied. This approach has been particularly successful for many applications in neural, cerebral and cardiovascular domain offering valuable metrics and paradigms for describing underline physiological systems functioning and non-functioning. The purpose of this white paper is to provide the readers with a basic understanding of why information theory is a valuable tool for the study of the human being, to present some of the most common measures being used and to discuss a couple of paradigmatic applications.
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Abstract - In recent years, the healthcare system is undergoing a profound change shifting from a reactive care, in which people are treated when necessary, to proactive care, based on people’s involvement in their own health on a daily basis. This innovative model of healthcare provision aims to expand the capabilities of the healthcare systems outside hospitals, relying on recent technological advances in the development of smart systems. Of paramount importance for this model to be effective is the possibility to access the physiological state of patients in daily life settings, with the purpose of improving diagnosis and treatment of diseases in a personalized fashion and of empowering people towards a major awareness in the management of their own health. Favoured by the latest improvements in both sensors manufacturing and information and communication technologies, wireless Body Area Networks (BAN) represent a smart solution for the multiparametric collection of physiological data. These systems are constituted by networks of wearable sensors that wirelessly communicate to a central unit, satisfying requirements of portability, non-invasiveness and
real-time continuous monitoring. The aim of this white paper is to highlight the impact of wireless wearable multimodal recording in healthcare, reviewing the most important applications in today’s smart cities.
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Abstract - The technological development of the last years and recent advances in scientific research have favoured the emergence of new models of healthcare in smart cities. Fostered by the decentralization of clinical practice outside hospitals and the massive amount of physiological data that are recorded daily, new approaches that aim to go beyond traditional medicine are emerging. At the forefront of numerate disciplines, biological research and clinics, Network Physiology is a new field in science that proposes to take the distance from traditional segregation and look at human physiology from a holistic perspective. According to this approach, systems composing the human body are studied in their interactions, through newly developed theoretical frameworks and cutting edge data analysis tools. The aim is to introduce new biomarkers of physiological functioning that will improve our knowledge about the human body, help clinicians in diagnoses and enhance prevention of critical events. This white paper elaborates on the impact of Network Physiology in future smart cities and presents how diversified fields of science are implementing this paradigm to help scientific and clinical progress.
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Abstract - Energy is the foundation block for any socioeconomic development. Today, due to population growth and the industrialization of developing countries, we are facing a continuous increase in the energy demand. Improving the strategies to generate, optimize and distribute the energy produced is one of the main challenges that smart cities are currently trying to address. New services like demand respond and demand side management are starting to appear, to better manage the production and distribution of energy. Before this can happen, a solid smart metering infrastructure must be built, in order to monitor and give real-time feedback about energy usage. To foster a distributed energy monitoring infrastructure in smart cities, Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) may represent the key for both commercial and residential buildings. The basic idea of NILM, suggests using the aggregate power consumption, measured at the utility meter, to track single appliances contribution, in order to avoid the need for a sensor for each appliance to be monitored.
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Abstract - Internet of things is rapidly becoming a commoditized technology: the widespread availability of low cost devices like personal assistants, smart sensors and always-connected home appliances has lead to a situation where network access becomes indispensable. While wired connections may provide bandwidth and reliability, wireless networks are the de-facto standard for IoT due to cost, mobility and scalability advantages. Many wireless technologies can offer a distinct mix of performance, adaptability and power consumption, but which is the most suitable for an IoT world where ubiquitous availability, low power operation, device roaming and reliability are the pillars used to support billions of devices?
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Abstract - Health is one of the main topics in the context of smart cities. Technologies are in continuous improvement and are playing an increasingly important role in the field of healthcare and rehabilitation. The aim of this white paper is to present innovative solutions, able to improve the self-sufficiency of patients with cognitive and/or motor impairments and help the clinicians during the rehabilitation and assistance period, giving them a suitable indicator of the patient point of view (mental stress and effort) and the performances achievable.
Keywords—Assistive technology; rehabilitation; wearable sensors; ambient assisted living, stress measurement; motion capture.
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Abstract - The goal of this white paper is to give a brief overview of the current challenges and trends in the field of healthcare with a view to a re-organization of cities in a smart direction. The main challenge is the development of innovative models supported by high-tech services for the prevention of frailty and disability in an aging society. Indeed, an hospitalbased healthcare system as the only center for dealing with all the issues relative to health in a direct or indirect manner is inadequate to the peculiar needs of an increasing number of elderly people. This results in the need to build a network of highly integrated and continuous support services that can be implemented in differentiated assistance projects. In this context, the technology is playing an increasingly important role and an analysis is necessary regarding the sustainability and impact of the new health technologies on the existing scenery.
Keywords—Healthcare; smart city; wellbeing.
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Martin Brugnara, Cristian Consonni, Daniele Foroni, Sivam Pasupathipillai, Giulia Preti, Paolo Sottovia, Yannis Velegrakis
Abstract - Modern cities use information and communication technologies to obtain deep insights on the different aspects of the way they operate, which can allow officials to make informed decisions to improve the operational efficiency of different operations and improve the life of their citizens. Analyzing the data about the different activities poses significant challenges. It is not merely the volume that recent hardware and software advancements have helped to achieve, but also challenges regarding the variety, velocity, and veracity of the data. All this is often known as the Big Data paradigm. In this document, we analyze some of these challenges, which we believe have not yet received considerable attention, we explain their value, and we describe some of the advanced solutions we have developed.
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Abstract - Nowadays, IP video traffic is responsible for a vast amount of the global IP traffic over Internet, an increasing rend fueled not only by the usage of personal computers, but also by the rising in prominence of mobile devices and smart-tvs as primary entertainment consumption devices among users.
As of 2018, the leading paradigm of delivery is HTTP-based adaptive streaming, a technique which carries pre-encoded video segments over HTTP/TCP packets. While many efforts have been spent towards reaching a satisfying visual experience, one
critical point remains mostly untackled by all the prominent HAS protocols: the latency of delivery. With the term latency we
indicate the time passed from the instant a video is captured to the moment it gets displayed on the user’s device, a key aspect
in the viewing of live events such as sports or happenings.
In this white-paper we will evaluate some innovative approaches and technological advancements which can re-balance
the triangle between visual quality, network reliability and occupation and delivery latency, by first examining the reasons
which lead to an increase in latency for HAS protocols, and then investigating some of the most promising proposals in the
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Martin Brugnara, Matteo Lissandrini, Yannis Velegrakis
Abstract - Smart Cities generate continuously a huge amounts of graph data. The collection, processing, and analysis of such data is crucial for the prosperity and progress of the cities.
Many specialized solutions have been developed for dealing with graph data. Among them are Graph Database Systems that offer storage and querying for graph data. In this paper we present a detailed and curated selection of such systems that offer a standard interaction method via the Apache TinkerPop’s Gremlin protocol and report the summary of our detailed evaluation of such systems. We also analyze some scenarios in the domain of Smart Cities and, based on our findings, suggest the most appropriate system to use in each use case.
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Abstract — A sustainable energy transition means substantial changes in technology, but also a change in behavior and policies, thus requiring the engagement of both the engineering and the social science communities. In order to achieve the EU 20% reduction on primary energy consumption target by 2020, a change in consumer behavior and energy consumption practices is needed. Providing smart meters and technology for feedback about energy consumption have been considered strategic in current energy policies, as part of the battle against climate change. However, feedback alone does not always lead to energy savings. Beyond information on their own consumption and generic advices, people usually still need more specific guidance about how to change their behavior in an effective and sustainable way. Energy demand is mostly influenced by end user choices and behaviors, making the effectiveness of the adoption of new technologies not effective as expected. This article discusses how technology and electricity consumption feedback alone may not be sufficient to drive a sustainable energy transition. The need of taking into consideration also the socio-economic aspect to understand what motivates consumers’ energy consumption is outlined, presenting some ideas to inspire consumers to act beyond their only personal interest and to engage in a transition to a more sustainable-energy usage.
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Abstract — Urbanization is taking place worldwide and fast, so much that 66% of the world population is predicted to live in cities in 2050. This massive movement of people from rural to urban areas pose challenges for municipal governments. Resources used to run services like the municipal transportation or healthcare systems will not keep up with the rhythm of the population’s growth. To meet the growing demand of resources, cities must evolve and build advanced, large-scale networks able to efficiently retrieve and distribute the needed resources. Not only, the same citizen should have access to different services that may need to share information to interoperate correctly. Multiple networks will therefore need a common technological layer where confidential data about citizens can be exchanged and stored securely. The emerging technological tool to implement such platform, so to empower the Smart Cities of tomorrow, is the blockchain. But what is a blockchain? How does it work? Which applications for Smart Cities can we run on top of it? The goal of this paper is to answer these questions.
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Abstract — Smart lighting is one of the key needs of everyday life for citizens. On the one hand, the presence of light is critical to provide security and safety. On the other hand, excessive usage of electrical energy influences greenhouse gasses increase. This white paper explores the importance of smart lighting in the context of smart cities. In particular, the importance of smart energy management of lighting and the choice of right technologies are discussed. Some possible technology solutions are presented and their performance are analyzed.
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White Papers from the IEEE Smart Cities Inaugural Workshop, December 2014 in Trento, Italy.
Gianni Andreottola, Roustam Asimov, Andrey Bogomolov, Alberto Borghetti, Davide Brunelli, Andrea Conti, Clarissa Di Tonno, David Macii, Paul Merkus, Carlo Alberto Nucci, Gianmichele Panarelli, Diego Ragazzi, Luca Silvestri, Gabriella Trombino, Hans van Zonneveld
Abstract— This White Paper has its roots in the two-day workshop held in Trento, Italy, in December 2014 involving representatives from local governance, associations, industry and start-ups. Future Energy Systems in Smart Cities are expected to be based upon distributed energy generation, real-time demand/response and user engagement for a collective awareness about the value of energy resources. In this technological ecosystem, ICT scales up from a commodity to a fundamental pillar to “smartify” the cities. Within this context, empowered communities of users, local governance together with citizens, can perform common actions aimed at maximizing the efficiency of distribution and consumption of energy. Several actions can be implemented with the active engagement of the local communities and stakeholders. This paper aims at presenting how the Municipality of Trento can adopt technological innovations and new end-user engagement policies.
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Andrea Molinari, Vincenzo Maltese, Lorenzino Vaccari, Andrea Almi and Eleonora Bassi
Abstract— In this paper, we present a general overview of the perspectives and issues of Big Data and Open Data in a Smart City, with specific implications for the municipality of Trento, Italy. We start by presenting the current state of the art of Big Data and Open Data in Trento and continue by proposing a line of development for these two topics that could positively impact the everyday life of its citizens. We will place particular emphasis on the results that emerged from the discussion we had during the working group meeting that the municipality organized on this topic. The challenges posed by four enablers of Big Data and Open Data projects and initiatives are described: cultural enablers, organizational enablers, governance enablers and technological enablers.
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Ivan Bedini, Andrea Teschioni, Renato Lo Cigno, Leonardo, Giambattista Gruosso, Annapaola Marconi and Giuseppe Conti
Abstract— Urban Mobility systems play an increasingly important role in the way people move around their communities and how communities develop. Despite the significant benefits to using public transportation, many potential riders are reluctant to utilize public transportation. In this current situation, cities and communities are increasing efforts to provide multiple solutions for urban mobility and to promote it among their users. Although such an approach provides valuable alternatives to the citizenry, it also multiplies the information flow that users and service-providers must gather. Riders and commuters are, then, often confused or intimidated by the complexity and unpredictable nature of transit systems. In this paper, we present the results of the group discussions held in Trento at the IEEE-SC Workshop on December 2014 focusing on the topic of Smart Mobility. During this workshop, we analyzed in detail the current situation of Trento as a Smart City and the general requirements for transforming a good mobility plan into a smart mobility action. Our group contributions converged into five main priorities: 1) developing citizens’ awareness regarding the adoption of alternative services; 2) engaging citizens themselves as an important and valuable source of input; 3) enhancing Localized Based Systems (LBS); 4) the creation of an open platform, with an advanced Dashboard, through which citizenry, administration, and businesses can easily develop civic apps and services by means of intelligent and aggregated information, even in real time; 5) last, but not least, increasing the communication network by leveraging the development of cooperative systems.
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Marco Lorenzi, Mirko Mancin and Sergio Cagol
Abstract - Starting from state-of-the-art best practices and the Trento experience, this white paper aims to define the needs, behavior and expectations of integrated and connected tourism industry service providers, describing innovative service concepts, patterns, trends and requirements to support the development of these services.
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G. Nollo, R. Raffaetà, M. Caon, A. de Luca, C. Feliziani, P. Andrighettoni, N. Conci, S. Forti, L. Ravanelli, M. Gianordoli, M. Caprino, E Torri, D. Conforti, L. Mion, M. Conci and E. Turra
Abstract— On December 10-11, 2014, the inaugural workshop of the IEEE Smart Cities Initiative was organized in Trento. As a part of the workshop labor, a number of working tables were settled on the main domains characterizing the concept of a smart city. This paper reports the outcome of the Health and Well-being working group, a strongly interdisciplinary panel of experts who, starting from the funding notion of health and the present-day challenges, analyzed the ongoing technological trends and related opportunities for new concepts of health delivery and health promotion in the smart community setting.
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Giacomo Fioroni, Marco Pistore, Silvio Ranise, Giancarlo Sciascia, Michele Trainotti, Franco Amigoni, Letizia Caporusso, Francesca Gleria and Andrea Maffeis
Abstract—The number of available online services, their effectiveness and usage level and their level of interaction are important indicators of the “smartness” level of e-government. Increasing these indicators has positive effects not only in terms of time and effort spent by citizens and enterprises to access and use the services provided by the administration but also by triggering the optimization process of the back offices of the administration. The Municipality of Trento is launching an innovation project aimed at increasing the number, usage and interaction level of online services with the objective of moving all relevant services and processes managed by the Trento administration online. This approach is based on the innovative concept of a “one-stop shop” for interactive online services, which the Municipality wants to define and implement with the help of the Trento innovation ecosystem; going beyond the classical concept of a unique access point, Trento wants to deliver a single access point to online services that is simple, trusted, complete, connected and open to better serve the innovation needs of this core enabler of the smart city.
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